The United States and Canada have a close intelligence partnership and often coordinate law enforcement efforts, with a focus on securing the border since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. As part of the Declaration Beyond Borders signed in 2011, the two nations agreed to negotiate the exchange of information and the common assessment of threats in order to develop a common and early understanding of the threat environment; infrastructure investments to further increase trade and people transport; Integrated cross-border prosecutions; And coordinated measures to strengthen and protect critical infrastructure43 The declaration resulted in a 2016 agreement on the exchange of information on people with a clear threat, including the country`s “no-fly lists.” It has also led to other agreements, such as an entry/exit programme launched in 2013, which is expected to provide data on entry into one country for the registration of the other country`s exit, and a 2015 agreement to extend pre-transport information activities to all modes of transport. However, implementation of these initiatives has been slow due to Canadian privacy and sovereignty concerns. The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CUSFTA) was a Canada-U.S. trade agreement. The agreement gradually removed a wide range of trade restrictions over a ten-year period and resulted in a significant increase in cross-border trade as an improvement over the last replaced trade agreement.  With Mexico`s accession in 1994, the free trade agreement was replaced by the French-language North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN).  NORAD is a cornerstone of U.S. defense relations.
NORAD was founded in 1958 and was originally intended to monitor North America and defend against Soviet long-range bombers. However, the NORAD agreement has been reviewed and revised several times to respond to changes in the international security environment. Today, NORAD`s mission is that following the signing of the auto pact, the Canadian government has considered proposing free trade agreements in other economic sectors. However, the U.S. government was less sensitive to this idea and wanted to remove some of the guarantees from the pact. Canada`s attention has focused on the issue of a broader free trade agreement between the two countries.  According to the U.S. State Department, “U.S. defense agreements with Canada are more important than with any other country.” 28 The Permanent Joint Board on Defense, founded in 1940 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Mackenzie King, is the highest bilateral defence forum between the United States and Canada.
It is made up of senior military and civilian officials from both countries and provides consultations and political advice on the issue of continental defence. Often, analyses of the free trade agreement show that its effects on both countries depend on the difference in value between the Canadian dollar and the U.S. dollar. In 1990-91, the Canadian dollar rose sharply against the U.S. dollar, making Canadian industrial products much more expensive to purchase U.S. products and making U.S. industrial products significantly cheaper for Canadians who no longer had to pay high tariffs on them. Unlike many countries whose bilateral relations are exclusively managed by foreign ministries, the governments of the United States and Canada have deep, often very bureaucratic, relationships to deal with issues of common interest.